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New fruit/spine colour combinations in raspberries

Johannes Øydvin

1998 the author discovered a raspberry hedge bearing apricot fruits and red spines. In Norway this was an unknown combination of fruit and spine colour. That plant material had been moved from a garden in Oslo in the 1960’es to a garden at Moervegen in Ås. The variety will here be named Moer. Crossing with Moer might produce derivatives possessing unknown combinations of fruit and spine colour. This was shown in a cross that was transplanted into the field at Ås 2003.


Records made during 2004-06 showed that Glen Moy x Moer segregated four combinations of fruit/spine colour: A dark red fruits/dark red spines; B dark red fruits/green spines; C apricot fruits/dark red spines; and D yellow fruits/dark red spines. And the following number within groups: 32 A: 29 B: 32 C: 37 D.

Combinations B, C and D did not exist in the earlier clarification of inheritance pattern, where fruit and spine colour were controlled by a gene pair, TtPp. TP gives dark red fruits and dark red spines, also spine base; Tp gives light red fruits and red colour limited to the spine point; tP gives apricot fruits and green spines; while ttpp gives yellow fruits and green spines.

Later in a Russian wild material Keep (Euphytica 1934) described one more colour gene pair, Ii, interacting with gene T, so Tii plants give apricot fruits.

Keep’s together with my last investigations indicates a more comprehensive and complex inheritance pattern of fruit and spine colour in raspberries than earlier assumed.

Development of spineless large-fruited raspberries with wild raspberry flavour


SM 11/14-09 (Max) and SN 34/28-06 (Karl) were both spineless bearing firm large attractive fruits possessing excellent flavour. Max (Picture 1) produced the largest fruits. Both were easy to pick. The coherence between drupelets was good. These varieties were intended to be of particularly high fresh fruit quality. None of them have so far been evaluated in ordinary variety trials.

My effort on this field has lasted for almost 50 years under changing conditions.

It started in 1961 by selection in a cross where Asker was used as parent. Unfortunately, those derivatives of Asker possessing the best flavours were all beyond average in fruit size. New crosses were nor good enough.

The progress started 1982.08.20. On this day the author evaluated taste in a variety collection grown at Øjebyn experiment station, Northern Sweden. Clone 60-8-13 separated from the rest due to its wild-raspberry flavour. According to an agreement with Gunny Larsson I took green suckers cleaned for soil on the ethylated zone for use in Norway.  F. Gruber, Max Planck Institutes was the breeder. Larsson collected virus-tested healthy material in 1969. In Norway Clone 60-8-13 got spread under the name Gruber. Its excellent flavour has been tried carried through Norprins, which was lacking winter hardiness, through Ida and Karl to Max.

Avoidance of attack, or resistance against raspberry beetle, was not found within BC2 Rubus spectabilis from East Malling, England. Among these selections EM 5948/2 was preferred for crossing with Norprins. Their offspring Ida showed progress in winter-hardiness, and became the first Norwegian spineless raspberry variety. No derivatives possessing particularly good taste was found in family Ida x Glen Ampel. Valuable traits of Glen Moy were carried to our varieties via EM 5948/2 and directly by crossing with Ida. Doing so Karl came into being. Tulameen is a derivative from the well-tasting and grey mould resistant Nootka crossed with Glen Prosen. Tulameen was crossed with Karl to make progress in growing value and to extend the growing area for their derivatives lake Max.

Photo: Johannes Øydvin




Updated: 18.02.10
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Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences

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- Foodplants
- Genetics
- Plants